educational ,employment ,health,sports,political news and other information

Wednesday, March 13, 2024

Classification of Periodic Table

  shekharagouda       Wednesday, March 13, 2024

 Topic              :An article of Science

Section          : All Section

Location        : All over World

Date of

Publication    : 13/03/2024

Scaned copy :Yes

Number of

pages              :01


 text                 :No


protected         :No

Link Download:Available 

Copy Text         :Yes

Printin Enable  :Yes

Quality of topic:High

Topic size 

reduced            :No

Cost of Topic   :No

Save Tree and Save Soil

Classification of Periodic Table

  1. Periods:

  2. Horizontal rows in the periodic table are called periods. Each period represents a new energy level (shell) occupied by the elements' electrons as you move from left to right across the table.
  3. Groups or Families:

    • Alkali Metals (Group 1): Highly reactive metals, soft and silvery in appearance.

    • Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2): Reactive metals but less so than alkali metals. They are also silvery in appearance.

    • Transition Metals (Groups 3-12): These elements are often hard, dense metals with high melting and boiling points. They exhibit variable oxidation states and are commonly used in industry.

    • Post-transition Metals:

    • These metals are located to the right of the transition metals. They include elements like aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, lead, and bismuth.

    • Metalloids:

    • Elements that have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals. They are found along the zigzag line on the periodic table and include elements like boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium.

    • Nonmetals:

    • These elements are typically poor conductors of heat and electricity. They include elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and the noble gases.

    • Halogens (Group 17): Highly reactive nonmetals, often found in diatomic molecules in nature.

    • Noble Gases (Group 18): Inert gases, generally unreactive due to their stable electron configurations.

  4. Vertical columns in the periodic table are called groups or families. Elements within the same group typically share similar chemical properties due to having the same number of valence electrons. The main groups are:

  5. Inner Transition Metals:

  6. These are the two rows at the bottom of the periodic table, known as the lanthanides and actinides. These elements often exhibit similar chemical properties and are often referred to as rare earth elements.

  7. Block classification:

  8. Elements are also categorized based on the subshell in which the outermost electron resides. These include the s-block, p-block, d-block, and f-block elements.

Understanding these classifications helps in predicting the chemical behavior of elements and their compounds, as well as understanding their physical properties and applications.


the classification of elements in the periodic table provides a systematic framework for understanding the properties, behaviors, and relationships of chemical elements. By organizing elements based on their atomic structure, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, the periodic table offers invaluable insights into the fundamental building blocks of matter.

The periodic table's arrangement into periods and groups allows for the identification of trends in properties as one moves across a row or down a column. From the highly reactive alkali metals to the inert noble gases, each group exhibits distinct characteristics governed by the number of valence electrons and their distribution in atomic orbitals.

Moreover, the classification of elements into blocks—s, p, d, and f—further refines our understanding, providing insights into the electron configurations and chemical behaviors of different groups of elements. The inner transition metals, spanning the lanthanides and actinides, contribute to the diversity of the periodic table and have significant implications in various technological and industrial applications.

Overall, the periodic table's classification system serves as a foundational tool in chemistry, guiding research, education, and practical applications across a multitude of scientific disciplines. Its enduring importance underscores the significance of Dmitri Mendeleev's original insight and the ongoing contributions of scientists to refine and expand our understanding of the elements and their properties.


1. What is the periodic table?

  • The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of chemical elements organized by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties.

2. How are elements classified in the periodic table?

  • Elements are classified into periods (horizontal rows) and groups or families (vertical columns) based on similarities in their chemical properties and electron configurations.

3. What are the main groups in the periodic table?

  • The main groups include alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, post-transition metals, metalloids, nonmetals, halogens, and noble gases.

4. What are the characteristics of alkali metals?

  • Alkali metals are highly reactive metals with a silvery appearance. They have one valence electron and readily lose it to form cations in chemical reactions.

5. How do transition metals differ from other groups?

  • Transition metals are characterized by variable oxidation states, high melting and boiling points, and the ability to form complex ions. They are commonly used in industry and exhibit a wide range of colors in their compounds.

6. What are metalloids, and where are they located on the periodic table?

  • Metalloids are elements that have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals. They are found along the zigzag line on the periodic table.

7. Why are noble gases considered inert?

  • Noble gases have full valence electron shells, making them stable and unreactive under normal conditions. They are often found as monoatomic gases and do not readily form compounds with other elements.

8. What are inner transition metals, and why are they significant?

  • Inner transition metals include the lanthanides and actinides, which occupy the two bottom rows of the periodic table. They have unique electronic structures and are important in various technological applications, including nuclear energy and magnetic materials.

9. How does the periodic table help predict the properties of elements?

  • The periodic table's organization allows for the prediction of trends in properties such as atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity as one moves across a period or down a group.

10. What is the historical significance of the periodic table?

  • The periodic table's development by Dmitri Mendeleev in the 19th century revolutionized the field of chemistry by providing a systematic framework for organizing and understanding the properties of elements. Its continued relevance underscores its enduring importance in scientific research and education.
« Prev Post

No comments:

Post a Comment